Saturday, September 17, 2011

1866 annual event: the Qing court sent the first delegation going abroad

The spring of 1866, when he was appointed Secretary General of the British Customs Hart plans to return marriage to the Yamen, please leave six months, and suggested that the Qing government sent people to take the opportunity to go to the West with its own investigation.
In Hart's arrangements, this first month, 63-year-old banner Bin Chun, Wen Guan rates with students Fengyi, Zhang Deyi, Yan Hui Ying and his son, wide, line five, after more than a month's voyage, arrived in France Marseille, has traveled to France, Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia and other 15 countries in seven days and returned to Beijing in early October. This is the first time in modern Chinese government sent missions to visit Western countries.
History fortunate in that year, 63-year-old and 19-year-old Bin Chun Zhang Deyi, as we also left a little old and two kinds of observed Western perspective.
A pure Manchu went overseas missions

Left sat the elderly, it is 63-year-old Bin Chun, within their London studio pictures. Most of the historical description of the leader of the delegation are very stylized, said he had no fear of the storm Su Wu, Jing Ke's courage to take risks, courage and knowledge, is rare in modern China and seeing the world's leading open character.
This is Bin Chun exaggerated. The study went overseas, in fact, in the case of extreme low-key open. This can be from the head of the Bin Chun confirmed in low rank - the former Shanxi xiangling County magistrate.
Chun Bin Yamen choice as leader of the delegation, is the result of a considered.
Above period ("1865") described in the late Qing reform led by the Yamen, and always firmly uphold the vested interests-based, that is, the Manchu-based, the study is no exception. Mission, the Bin Chun Han and his son is widely British banner, Fung is the Mongolian nationality are yellow, Zhang Deyi, and Yan Hui are Xianghuang Banner Han nationality. Still do not trust the Qing court to deal with subjects and foreigners, but not Han Chinese subjects and foreigners do not trust to deal with.
Moreover, Bin Chun is subject to classics "tempered" out of "aging and reliable person", there is powerful resistance "barbarians were" ideological erosion of the ability.
Third, only a small bureaucracy Bin Chun, Tang Huo study defective and not damaged heavenly face.
As many writings praised Bin Chun, "traveled in China, eyes open, make friends very broad" and therefore the best candidate to become leader of the delegation, it is nonsense. "Bin Chun's sixth son, and I am reading one hour: he did not know where Taiwan!" "Hart Diary," October 18, 1864 this account. Family Education predicament, too much praise Bin Chun eyes open to see the vision of the world, is too ridiculous.
Bin Chun favorite study tips: the Western "imperial" of

As leader of the delegation, Chun Bin responsible Yamen Western countries conferred on the real situation spy duties. However, the results of his mission on behalf of the book "by Cha notes," During the inspection of a large number of poems and was a clear failure of the expedition beckons.
In addition to over and over again in the poems submitted to the emperor himself as the next great hero of the people's economy, Bin Chun boss who did not decline in the Qing court to bring back any useful can learn things. He describes the situation along the way a lot of mountains and customs, but the starting point is not the people's livelihood, but to the "aesthetic" - to see the microscope, the boss who does not care for what purpose, but it greatly lamented, "Chuang-tzu" in the parable does not virtual; see a bike, do not ask how to make, but talk of their "wooden ox the left Italy."
British royal banquet Bin Chun and his party, after the two oldest people poem:
Yu-chieh cents battle out one thousand officers, full bar puzzle Qibao flowers; midnight gold furnace Tim animal charcoal, King House standing above the crowd.
Long narrow sleeves garment of light feathers, string treasure chest circumference according to eye-Ming; Seduction song played by the same shot, Luan songs to Fung Ying Fung Mo.
If you do not see the title "British monarch on April 23 dinner dance palace banquets, please," Who can see this is a distant palace banquet in London?
This is a very strange logic. Missions to the West, which was supposed to "divergent" China did not find the technical, institutional, and cultural thought I; results Bin Chun boss who is extremely strong in the West will be described, "China" or even "Qing-based . "
And this will be the Western "imperial" of the accompanying description, the boss who is bin overflowing piles of personal heroism satisfaction. Almost all the poems in this line are filled with such intense satisfaction of individual heroism, repeated the "Ringing Yasumizu gone" to praise his "feat", said he "Lin Feng-table despite lack of Meishan,'m pretty clouds raccoon moving article, "" Wearing pro Laodu Lan Hong, write dumping Princes. " This individual heroism, and finally developed to the point of unreasonable - when the road home by Egypt, the plague broke out, the Customs suspected pathogens from Europe, not allow them to stay in the train, boss man of passion broke out, then as a poem:
"Love administrative ill plaques, from the security to remedy a sincere heart disease; I was national champion of human health, the bag has silver bullets to save the world."
Bin Chun oldest person presented to us, not the modern Western democracy, scientific, and utilitarian spirit of the doctrine, but the poetic character of the Chinese literati, leisure Seclusion and the heroic image of self-fashioning. He tried to observe the results of the West, only to see himself. In the course of the transformation of modern China, Chun Bin boss who is not the case, he actually is one of many traditional literati of a typical representative of, only the traditional to the modern scholar truly change the status of intellectuals, the modern transformation of the late Qing Dynasty China could be successful.
Junior, Zhang Deyi, the first account of condoms, and its large uncritical

Fortunately, the young fellow, Zhang Deyi, left us in his eyes, another Western world.
Zhang Deyi, with the text of the Capital Museum is the first batch of trained interpreters, with the Bin Chun delegation visited after returning once served as Emperor of the English teachers. And the elderly have different perspectives, all 19-year-old Zhang Deyi of new things are full of curiosity.
1, the city impressed
Zhang praised London, England, "Road flat, lush gardens, streets and tidy, prosperous town," Berlin, Germany, "all the way to the building of Hong Li, flat roads, if the law Yan Jing Paris", Paris, France, the "pavilion beautiful, prosperous people , Wheeler railway, Yu Shi Qiongying, ... ... more countries Rhyme, and wins a chip. " Zhang also noted the improvement of urban public facilities in the West, such as parks, drainage systems, public toilets and so on.
2, curious about the Western science and technology
Zhang's account of travels in the most, is the product of national scientific and technological progress, such as elevators, trains, subway, boat, bicycle, "Iron tailor" (foot-operated sewing machine), "system of fire treasure machine" (fire extinguisher), reaper, lifts. The invention of the "bicycle" one, still in use.
3, visit the British parliamentary proceedings
Zhang Deyi, is the first production of the West's political record of the Chinese people.
Chamber in the UK, the experience of parliamentary democracy, Zhang Deyi, the proceedings of the case; he was still a British court observers, impressed by its ruling regime, the prevalence of torture and the late Qing Dynasty Chinese system differ. Of the French parliamentary system and its components, Zhang praised: "The French national policy, its command and returning the right of return will not: be divided into two, said litigation forum, under the courtroom." Is actually the House of Lords House of Commons, and a detailed account of lawmakers elected democratic process. For Germany's constitutional monarchy, Zhang described: "though not democratic, there is still the House of Commons, and the United Kingdom with the" decision-making must still follow a democratic system.
Interest in the Western form of government, Zhang Deyi, throughout the entire life.
4, for the first time to see the condom and be severely criticized
Zhang Deyi, in the "odd sailing out" first documented in the Western contraceptives condoms, Zhang called "kidney clothing": "Wen Ying, kidney clothes were on sale in France, I do not know what things made, according to the cloud, places prostitutes things will be the first crown in the Long Yang Road, so as not to Those who are sick. Hin Mu consistency, not one, though clouds prevent a disease, always faster than the also naked. "In" Journey to the West Europe and Central Travels francs ", he also recorded : "The smell fear of foreigners for the surviving children were tired, is buy a leather or silk sets, consistently in the top of the penis, although the Phoenix extremely Britain while a child is not down mandarin duck eggs."
Western scholars generally believe that people are now caused by the use of condoms Island is the 16th-century Italian anatomist Fallopius invented in 1870 to be popular, mass production, low prices. Zhang Deyi During the visit coincided with the beginning of condoms when widely streaming.
To 1888, accompanying ambassador to Germany, the Zhang Deyi, they saw the female condom: "unexpectedly more female against male, their material is also made to the ancient meters week about four inches deep is not profit-inch, shaped like a Bowl. whore who fear disease and infected men who have the body, first set this thing on the vulva, there was no contamination of the suffering. "" ancient rice ", is the meaning of the rubber.
As a Chinese traditional culture and education out of the literati, Zhang Deyi, new things for condoms uphold this critical attitude is harsh, he wrote: "The law fixed wonderful men, and Mengzi Yun: lack of filial piety have three, half a million for. Unfortunately These people have not heard of To the advocates of this Xing law, people cut heir, the people Zuiburongzhu carry so-called initiator, after its no peace! "
Low self-esteem of adolescents: knowledge of the molecular transformation of modern refusal to

Years later, Zhang Deyi, became emperor of foreign language teachers, with the kneeling kings and ministers to see the emperor is still sitting motionless at the glory, but low self-esteem still runs through his entire life.
This low self-esteem from their academic background with the text of the museum.
China in the early 1860s, learning foreign languages ​​is not a formal scholar into the body channel. To maximize students with cultural worth and status of the museum, Yamen more on this crucial reform has to take care of, not only living expenses and bonuses after the favorable enrollment, and completion of their studies to the level of merit was awarded seven to Nine's office.
But it is still difficult to reverse the social hall for students with cultural discrimination, insult its popular phrase is "Confucian disciples, Mr. Gui"; otherwise Yamen ironic couplet: "trick the fold, so that the text of the same set Xiaochao Ting Museum; military far-slightly, thanks to alien children to lure good teachers. "
Zhang Deyi, in his later years taught his descendants: "The state can text to the right path to reading. ... I ignorant, not into the right path, shame associating with the right path."
In 1866, the "right track", who Bin Chun and "non-right path", who, Zhang Deyi, among them the pride and self-esteem, reflecting the fact that the same problem: the traditional literati transformation to modern intellectuals. Bin Chun went overseas visit in his report to portray themselves into the traditional literati-style hero, and most likely the transition to modern intellectuals, Zhang Deyi, but then his life was far better than the traditional circle of literati self-esteem remorse. The face of the times in between the old and a little, at a glance.

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